Is Hashimoto’s an Autoimmune Disease?

The article “Is Hashimoto’s an Autoimmune Disease?” by Martin Rutherford aims to address the question of whether or not Hashimoto’s is an autoimmune disease. Dr. Rutherford wants to ensure that everyone understands that Hashimoto’s is indeed an autoimmune issue and what that means. He provides information on how autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto’s, develop and the role of genetics and triggers in their onset. The article emphasizes the importance of seeking professional medical advice and not disregarding it, as well as the need to manage and control triggers for a better quality of life.

What is Hashimoto’s?

Hashimoto’s is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland. It is named after Hakaru Hashimoto, a Japanese physician who first described the condition in 1912.

Is Hashimotos an Autoimmune Disease?


Hashimoto’s is characterized by the immune system’s attack on the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and damage. This results in an underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism. The immune system produces antibodies that mistakenly target and destroy the thyroid tissue, disrupting its ability to produce thyroid hormones.


The exact cause of Hashimoto’s disease is unknown. However, it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Having a family history of Hashimoto’s or other autoimmune disorders increases the risk of developing the condition. Additionally, certain triggers, such as infections, hormonal imbalances, stress, and pregnancy, can contribute to the onset of Hashimoto’s.


The symptoms of Hashimoto’s can vary from person to person and may develop gradually over time. Some common symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Cold intolerance
  • Muscle weakness
  • Joint pain
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Hair loss
  • Depression
  • Memory problems

It is important to note that these symptoms are not exclusive to Hashimoto’s and can be seen in other health conditions as well. Proper diagnosis through medical tests is essential for accurate identification.

Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the body. In a healthy immune system, antibodies and immune cells protect the body from foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses. However, in autoimmune diseases, the immune system cannot distinguish between healthy cells and harmful invaders, leading to the destruction of healthy tissue.


Autoimmune diseases can affect various organs and systems in the body. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. Each autoimmune disease has its own set of symptoms and affects different parts of the body.

How Autoimmune Diseases Develop

The development of an autoimmune disease involves a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic predisposition plays a role in the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Environmental triggers, such as infections, certain medications, and hormonal changes, can activate the immune system and lead to the development of autoimmune responses. Once triggered, the immune system mistakenly recognizes the body’s own cells as foreign and initiates an attack.

It is important to note that autoimmune diseases are not contagious. They are caused by a malfunctioning immune system and are not the result of external factors or infections.

Hashimoto’s as an Autoimmune Disease

Hashimoto’s is classified as an autoimmune disease because it involves the immune system attacking the thyroid gland.

Confirmation as an Autoimmune Disease

Hashimoto’s was confirmed as an autoimmune disease through scientific research and the identification of specific antibodies targeting the thyroid tissue. The presence of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in the blood is a key marker for diagnosing Hashimoto’s.

Common Triggers for Hashimoto’s

While the exact triggers for Hashimoto’s are not fully understood, certain factors are believed to contribute to its development. These triggers include:

  1. Infections: Infections, particularly viral and bacterial infections, have been identified as potential triggers for Hashimoto’s. The immune response to these infections may lead to the development of autoimmune reactions.

  2. Hormonal imbalances: Changes in hormone levels, such as during pregnancy or menopause, can affect the immune system and increase the risk of developing Hashimoto’s.

  3. Stress: Chronic stress can weaken the immune system and make individuals more susceptible to autoimmune diseases.

  4. Genetic predisposition: Having a family history of Hashimoto’s or other autoimmune diseases increases the likelihood of developing the condition.

Genetics and Hashimoto’s

Genetics play a significant role in the development of Hashimoto’s. Research has shown that certain gene variations can increase the risk of developing the disease. Individuals with a family history of Hashimoto’s or other autoimmune disorders are more likely to inherit these genetic factors. However, having the genetic predisposition does not guarantee that the disease will develop. Environmental triggers are also necessary for the activation of Hashimoto’s in genetically susceptible individuals.

Understanding the genetic component of Hashimoto’s can help in identifying individuals who may be at higher risk and may benefit from early intervention and monitoring.

Symptoms of Hashimoto’s

The symptoms of Hashimoto’s can vary widely and may not always be directly related to the thyroid gland. It is important to be aware of both thyroid-related symptoms and non-specific symptoms that may indicate the presence of the disease.

Is Hashimotos an Autoimmune Disease?

Thyroid-related Symptoms

Hashimoto’s primarily affects the thyroid gland, leading to various symptoms related to its underactivity. These symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Muscle weakness
  • Joint pain
  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Hair loss
  • Slow heart rate
  • Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter)

Non-specific Symptoms

In addition to the thyroid-related symptoms, Hashimoto’s can also manifest with non-specific symptoms. These symptoms may not be directly linked to the thyroid gland but can indicate the presence of an autoimmune response. Non-specific symptoms may include:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Brain fog
  • Memory problems
  • Increased sensitivity to pain
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Infertility

It is important to note that these symptoms can vary in severity and may overlap with other health conditions. Proper medical evaluation and diagnostic testing are crucial for identifying Hashimoto’s and differentiating it from other disorders.

Diagnosing Hashimoto’s

Several medical tests are used to diagnose Hashimoto’s and determine the extent of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune activity.

Thyroid Function Tests

Thyroid function tests measure the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood to assess thyroid function. Common tests include:

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test: Elevated levels of TSH can indicate an underactive thyroid and may suggest Hashimoto’s.

  2. Free thyroxine (FT4) test: This test measures the amount of the active form of thyroid hormone, FT4, in the blood. Low levels of FT4 can indicate hypothyroidism.

  3. Total or free triiodothyronine (T3) test: T3 is another thyroid hormone that plays a role in regulating metabolism. Low T3 levels may indicate an underactive thyroid.

Antibody Tests

Antibody tests are essential for confirming the autoimmune nature of Hashimoto’s. The presence of specific antibodies in the blood is indicative of an immune response against the thyroid gland. Common antibodies tested for Hashimoto’s include:

  1. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies: These antibodies target the thyroid peroxidase enzyme, which plays a key role in the production of thyroid hormones.

  2. Anti-thyroglobulin (TG) antibodies: Thyroglobulin is a protein precursor involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Anti-TG antibodies attack this protein and can be detected in the blood.

Positive results for these antibody tests, along with abnormal thyroid function test results, confirm the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s.

Treatment Options for Hashimoto’s

While there is no cure for Hashimoto’s, several treatment options aim to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease.

Is Hashimotos an Autoimmune Disease?


Medications are commonly prescribed to regulate the thyroid hormone levels and alleviate symptoms of hypothyroidism. The most commonly prescribed medication is levothyroxine, which is a synthetic form of the hormone thyroxine (T4). It helps to restore thyroid hormone levels in the body and improve overall thyroid function.

Regular monitoring and dosage adjustments may be necessary to ensure optimal thyroid hormone levels are maintained.

Lifestyle Changes

In addition to medication, certain lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms of Hashimoto’s:

  1. Diet: Adopting a well-balanced diet that is rich in nutrients and low in processed foods can support thyroid function and overall health. Some individuals may benefit from avoiding certain foods, such as gluten or dairy, which can trigger inflammation in the body.

  2. Stress management: Chronic stress can worsen autoimmune symptoms. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as meditation, yoga, or counseling can help manage stress levels.

  3. Exercise: Regular exercise can boost energy levels, improve mood, and support overall well-being. It is important to find exercises that are suitable for individual fitness levels and health conditions.

  4. Supplements: Some individuals may benefit from specific supplements, such as selenium or vitamin D, which can support thyroid function and immune system health. However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplements.

Managing Hashimoto’s Symptoms

In addition to medical treatment, several strategies can help manage the symptoms associated with Hashimoto’s.

Dietary Modifications

Some dietary modifications may help alleviate symptoms and support thyroid health in individuals with Hashimoto’s. These may include:

  • Avoiding foods that trigger inflammation for some individuals, such as gluten, dairy, or processed foods.
  • Including foods that support thyroid health, such as iodine-rich foods (e.g., seaweed), selenium-rich foods (e.g., brazil nuts), and foods high in omega-3 fatty acids (e.g., fatty fish).

Stress Management

Stress can exacerbate autoimmune symptoms. Employing stress management techniques such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in hobbies can help reduce stress levels and improve overall well-being.


Regular physical activity can help improve energy levels, reduce fatigue, and support overall health. Finding exercise options that are enjoyable and suitable for individual fitness levels is important.


Some individuals may find supplementation with certain nutrients beneficial. However, it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian before starting any supplements to ensure safety and efficacy.

Preventing Hashimoto’s

While it may not be possible to prevent the development of Hashimoto’s entirely, certain measures can be taken to reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease.

Identifying and Avoiding Triggers

Knowing one’s triggers can help individuals with Hashimoto’s manage the symptoms and minimize the autoimmune response. Identifying and avoiding triggers such as infections, hormonal imbalances, or chronic stress may help reduce the risk or severity of Hashimoto’s flares.

Supporting a Healthy Immune System

Maintaining a healthy immune system can help reduce the likelihood of developing autoimmune diseases. This includes:

  • Adopting a well-balanced diet that provides essential nutrients to support immune function.
  • Engaging in regular physical activity to boost overall health and improve immune system function.
  • Getting adequate sleep and managing stress to support a healthy immune response.
  • Avoiding exposure to harmful substances, such as excessive environmental toxins or cigarette smoke, which can weaken the immune system.

Complications of Hashimoto’s

Untreated or poorly managed Hashimoto’s can lead to various complications affecting the thyroid gland and other body systems.

Thyroid Nodules

Hashimoto’s can cause the formation of thyroid nodules, which are abnormal growths within the thyroid gland. While most nodules are benign, a small percentage can be cancerous. Regular monitoring and evaluation of nodules are essential to detect any abnormalities or changes that may require further investigation or treatment.


In some cases, the autoimmune attack on the thyroid gland can cause it to enlarge, resulting in a goiter. A goiter can lead to difficulties in swallowing, breathing, or speaking. Treatment may involve medication, surgery, or other interventions depending on the size and symptoms associated with the goiter.


Myxedema is a severe form of hypothyroidism that can occur in individuals with untreated or undertreated Hashimoto’s. It is characterized by extremely low thyroid hormone levels, leading to symptoms such as profound fatigue, cold intolerance, mental dullness, and swelling of the skin.

Heart Problems

Untreated or poorly managed Hashimoto’s can increase the risk of heart problems, including heart disease and heart failure. Proper thyroid hormone replacement therapy and management of Hashimoto’s symptoms can help minimize the risk of cardiovascular complications.


Hashimoto’s is an autoimmune disease characterized by the immune system’s attack on the thyroid gland. It is important to understand that Hashimoto’s is not contagious and involves a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies can help alleviate symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with Hashimoto’s. Regular monitoring and close collaboration with healthcare professionals are essential for optimal care and support.

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